Gap TRAIN-04: We do not know the types of skills and knowledge that can be retained and generalized across tasks for a given mission to maximize crew performance. (Previous title: SHFE-TRAIN-04)
Last Published:  07/31/19 10:05:30 AM (Central)
Responsible Element: Human Factors and Behavioral Performance (HFBP)
Status: Open
Description
Initial State of Gap:
New long-duration, long-distance space exploration missions present new challenges, as these missions significantly differ from our past exploration experience. We cannot predict all the tasks crewmembers may be required to perform during such missions, and thus cannot design pre-flight training to address tasks about which we do not yet know. This lack of knowledge requires a shift from task-based training typical of past and current space missions to skill-based training that focuses on the long-term retentions and generalizability or transferability of acquired skills and knowledge. However, we do not know the types of skills and knowledge that can be retained and generalized across tasks for different design reference missions (DRMs). Furthermore, we have not quantified the retention & decay functions of skills, knowledge and materials currently trained. Nevertheless, we do know that Earth-based studies have shown that skills that are retained over long time intervals are highly specific and do not generalize, whereas skills that generalize easily are not always retained well. Thus, determining basic skills that could both be retained and generalized across tasks remain a significant challenge.

Interim Steps:
  1. Document current training assumptions underlying crew performance in terms of a general taxonomy of skills and knowledge.
    • Determine a general taxonomy for types of skills and knowledge underlying crew performance.
    • Document, using the generalized taxonomy, current ISS training approach for crew performance that maximizes effectiveness and minimizes errors in space operations.
  2. Analyze design reference mission of future space exploration missions to determine expected needs of skills and knowledge training for these missions.
    • Identify significant new or different mission drivers that affect training, including, but not limited to, longer mission durations, asynchronous communications (i.e., long-distance operational constraints), self-guided training (i.e., no real-time feedback & correction from instructor) and surface exploration.
    • Document taxonomy for types of skills and knowledge for a given mission.
  3. Within the framework of the defined taxonomy for skills and knowledge, determine the retainable and transferable skills and knowledge necessary for future space exploration missions.
    • Delineate, if any, current research that maps to NASA’s needs concerning retention and transfer of knowledge and skills, including difference between novice and expert operators.
    • Assess and document which of the identified skills or categories of knowledge are retainable, and which are not generalizable, necessitating in-flight training during future long-duration, long-distance missions.
  4. Solicit and conduct research to determine and validate skills and knowledge that are retainable and transferable. Research will focus on skills and knowledge that are necessary and unique to NASA’s long-duration missions and where there is limited data in other analogous domains.
  5. Document recommended types of skills and knowledge that can be retained and generalized for a given mission, reported in appropriate publications, standards, stakeholder panels, and/or risk Evidence Reports.

Approach:
  • Conduct observations, interviews, workshops and technical interchange meetings (TIMs) as appropriate to gather subject matter expert and stakeholder knowledge, arrive at a consensus on important issues, and vet conclusions concerning skills and knowledge underlying crew performance in space operations.
  • Use literature reviews to refine critical inputs for skill retention and transfer.
  • Utilize solicited and directed projects to conduct experimental research to identify and validate basic/underlying skills and knowledge appropriate to the projected needs of long-duration long-distance space missions.
  • Validate in an operational context and refine results produced through solicited and directed research and use of in-flight or analog data.
Target for Closure
Documentation of recommended types of skills and knowledge that can be retained and generalized for a given mission, reported in appropriate publications, standards, stakeholder panels, and/or risk Evidence Reports.
Mappings
Risk Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies
You are here! Gap TRAIN-04: We do not know the types of skills and knowledge that can be retained and generalized across tasks for a given mission to maximize crew performance. (Previous title: SHFE-TRAIN-04)
Active
Planned-Funded

Documentation:
No Documentation Available